First Year of Training
Goals of the first year training are to provide fellows with a broad exposure to all aspects of clinical cardiology, noninvasive and invasive procedures as well as clinical and basic research. Fellows will be expected to evaluate cardiac patients and initiate care of acute and chronic cardiac conditions under the guidance of supervising faculty. By the end of the first year training, fellows should be able to obtain accurate history and to perform a thorough cardiac physical examination. Fellows will learn the proper role of various cardiac procedures and tests in management of cardiovascular diseases. Fellows are expected to develop a differential diagnosis and plan for care of acute and chronic conditions respecting the patient's wishes.
Fellows are expected to have passed their internal medicine boards in their first year of fellowship. Fellows would be expected to start building the critical knowledge base by attending the didactic lectures, reading standard textbooks and current cardiology literature. First year fellows would be expected to learn indications, contraindications and complications related to cardiovascular procedures.
First year fellows will be expected to build a critical knowledge base that will permit them to function as competent cardiologists. Fellows will build to their knowledge base by reading cardiology literature, standard textbooks and via didactic lecture sessions.
First-year fellows will learn the indications, contraindications and potential complications related to various cardiovascular procedures. First-year fellows will learn how to perform various cardiovascular procedures under direct supervision. These procedures will include electrocardiograms, ambulatory EKG monitoring, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms, cardiac catheterization, exercise and pharmacologic stress testing, cardiac CT and MRI, electrical and chemical cardioversion, temporary pacemaker placement, and nuclear cardiac imaging.
Clinical Judgment and Skills:
Fellows should be able to obtain an accurate and complete cardiac history and to perform a thorough cardiac physical examination by the end of the first year of fellowship training. Fellows will learn the role of various noninvasive and invasive cardiac procedures and tests. Fellows will be expected to identify of life-threatening cardiovascular conditions and emergencies and to be able to initiate prompt therapy. Fellows would be expected to contribute to patient management and discussions on rounds in conjunction with the staff physician.
First-year fellows would be expected to conduct themselves with the highest of the ethical standards at all times. Fellows would be expected to conduct themselves with the exemplary professionalism at all times, as evidenced by the display of respect, integrity, honesty and compassion for patients and their families. Fellows would be expected to treat referring providers and other members of the health care team with respect.
Fellows would be expected to write a thorough, informative and instructive cardiac consultation note as well as accurate procedure notes. Fellows would be expected to learn how to communicate effectively with patients, families and all members of the healthcare team.
Fellows should be able to provide guidance for medical students and residents, as it relates to patient care and should be able to participate in management discussions on teaching rounds.
First-year fellows would be expected to provide teaching to residents and medical students on the basics of common cardiovascular conditions. Teaching methods should include actively participating in case discussions on rounds and conducting teaching sessions.
Second Year of Training
Fellows will continue to build upon the knowledge and skills gained during the first year of training and will begin to focus on their particular area of interest. Fellows will take on greater responsibility in patient management decisions. By second year, their research project should be well established. Some second-year fellows may be positioned to submit their findings in abstract form to national or regional scientific meetings.
Second-year fellows will improve upon the clinical judgment and the skills by continued participation in patient care in a variety of settings. Fellows would be expected to demonstrate continued improvement in patient care, procedural skills and continue to refine their understanding of risks and benefits of various cardiac procedures.
Fellows would be expected to advance their knowledge base by critically reviewing literature and continuing to participate in core curriculum conferences, Journal club and clinical cardiology conferences. Second year fellows would be expected to teach first-year fellows, residents and medical students.
Fellows would be expected to be role models for the first-year fellows and residents.
Third Year of Training
Third- year fellows would be expected to perfect their clinical judgment, procedural skills and be able to participate in evidence-based medicine. By the end of the training, fellows should be capable of practicing cardiovascular medicine competently and independently. Third- year fellows would be encouraged to submit full-length manuscripts for publication in scientific journals with guidance and help from faculty.
Third-year fellows would be expected to improve upon their clinical judgment and procedural skills acquired during the first two years of training. By the end of the third year, fellows should be able to expertly manage all patients, with cardiovascular diseases and should be able to function independently as a consultant cardiologist.