Diabetes is a condition that happens when the pancreas can no longer make insulin (a hormone).
The body needs insulin to turn the glucose (sugar) from food into energy. If the body doesn't have insulin, the level of sugar in the blood can get too high. Over time, high amounts of sugar in the blood can harm the body. Diabetes is a lifelong disease, so there is no cure.
Diabetes is broken down into two categories:
Type 1 - In children with type 1 diabetes, the pancreas stops making insulin. Food is still broken down into glucose. And glucose still travels to the cells. But without insulin, glucose can't enter the cells. Instead, it builds up in the blood. Too much glucose in the blood is called hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Without glucose, a child's cells don't get the energy they need and over time, high blood sugar can cause other health problems.
Type 2 - With type 2 diabetes, food is still broken down into glucose. And glucose still travels to the cells. But the pancreas may not make enough insulin for the amount of glucose in the blood. The liver may release too much glucose at once. And the body's cells may not respond the right way to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. Because of this, the cells receive less glucose than they need. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to try to keep up. But as time passes, the pancreas can't make enough insulin to overcome resistance. When this happens, glucose builds up in the bloodstream.
Type 1 Diabetes
There is no cure for type 1 diabetes, but the condition can be managed by monitoring blood sugar level, replacing insulin, eating a proper diet, and being active.
Type 2 Diabetes
There is no cure for type 2 diabetes. In most cases, oral medication or insulin are necessary to treat it. A healthy lifestyle is an important part of the treatment plan.